Research using case study method. Case Study Method in Psychology | Simply Psychology
This distinction accentuates the need for researchers to describe the particular underpinning methodology adopted and to clarify the alignment of chosen methods used with their philosophical assumptions and their chosen approach. The former is ideally studied using a controlled experimental design, whereas the latter is more appropriately studied using a case study design. Methods were required that could be used to explore factors such as participants' perspectives and the influence of socio-political contexts on curriculum successes and failures SIMONS, This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
While having a disciplined approach to the process and acknowledging that case study can use quantitative methods, STAKE's approach is underpinned by a strong motivation for discovering meaning and understanding of experiences cheerleading essay titles context. In contrast, the instrumental case study uses a particular case some of which may be better than others to gain a broader appreciation of an business plan books or phenomenon.
Methods were required that could be used to explore factors such as participants' perspectives and the influence of socio-political contexts on curriculum successes and failures SIMONS, Organisational context Policy and management views of patient safety and research using case study method on patient safety education and practice.
However, the turbulence, which surrounded reorganisation was found to have the opposite desired effect.
Strengths of Case Studies
In-depth interviews were conducted with asthma researchers from the UK and US. MILLS distinguishes methods as procedures and techniques employed in the study, while methodology is the lens through which the researcher views and makes decisions about the study. How the methods are used will vary and depend on the research purpose and design, which is often a variation of a single or multiple case study research design.
An interpretative position views reality as multiple and subjective, based on meanings and understanding. Semi-structured interviews, documentary data and field notes, observations and quantitative data. The diversity of approaches subsequently adds diversity to definition and description.
This work was conducted in the early stages of a major NHS reorganisation in England and Wales and thus, events are likely to have continued to evolve beyond the study period; we therefore cannot claim to have seen any of the stories through to their conclusion. Researchers suggested that the demographic profile of ethnic minorities, their political engagement and the different configuration of the health services in the UK and the US may have contributed to differential rates.
Case Study Method in Psychology | Simply Psychology
Case studies continued to be used during this time, however usually as a method within quantitative studies or referred to as descriptive research to study a specific phenomenon MERRIAM, Case study designs have been used across a number of disciplines, particularly the social sciences, education, business, law, and health, to address a wide range of research questions.
Like other forms of qualitative research, the researcher will seek to explore, understand and present the participants' perspectives and get close to them in their natural setting CRESWELL, Framework approach. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of case study design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources that tend to be used, and the particular advantages and disadvantages of employing this methodological approach.
The annotated bibliography norton field guide is mainly biographical and relates to events in the individual's past i. In psychology, case studies are often confined to the study of a particular individual.
Reading, coding and comparison progressed iteratively. McLeod, S. Interaction with research subjects therefore needs to be minimized and subjectivity managed to avoid biasing the results ibid. Sex Reassignment at Birth: Advocating for careful planning, development, and execution of case study research, MERRIAMdiscusses the pragmatic structures that ensure case study research is manageable, rigorous, credible, and applicable.
He does not use the research using case study method methodology or strategy. The results of the study are not generalizable because we can never know whether the case we have investigated is representative of the wider body of "similar" instances Because they are based on the analysis of qualitative i.
He presented a structured process for undertaking case study research where formal propositions or theories guide the research process and are tested as part of the outcome, highlighting his realist approach to qualitative case study research.
Academic context Documentary evidence including undergraduate curricula, handbooks and module outlinescomplemented with a range of views from course leads, tutors and students and observations in a range of academic settings. Structured in phases relevant to the three knowledge contexts: Key findings: Inthe NHS in England embarked on the most ambitious and expensive IT-based transformation in healthcare in history seeking to introduce electronic health records into all hospitals in England by We end with a summary of the common business plan books of case study research and a table that brings together the fundamental elements that we found common in all case study approaches to research.
STAKE recommends vignettes—episodes of storytelling—to illustrate aspects of the case and thick descriptions to convey findings, a further illustration of his constructivist and interpretivist approach to case study research. Data collection: In the sections that follow, the nature of this complexity in explored. For example, Freud has been criticized for producing case studies in which the information was sometimes distorted to fit the particular theories about behavior e.
- As a result, while case study research has evolved to be a pragmatic, flexible research approach, the variation in definition, application, validity, and purposefulness can create a confusing platform for its use.
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NHS initiatives included, for example, a hand washing initiative or introduction of infection control measures. Similar to STAKE, MERRIAMwas not as structured in her approach as YINbut promoted the use of a theoretical framework or research questions to guide the case study and organized, systematic data collection to manage the process of inquiry.
While objectivity is a goal, YIN also recognizes the descriptive and interpretive elements of case study. They are an important way of illustrating theories and can help show how different aspects of a person's life are related to each other.
Here, anthropologists practiced their methods on university cultures or by conducting lengthy case studies involving field-based observations of groups with the aim of understanding their social and cultural lives CRESWELL et al. Examples are provided of how these researchers' philosophical orientation influences the application of case study in practice.
Or whether the wish simple essay on my favourite festival diwali to obtain a more naturalistic understanding of an issue? The researcher's perceptions and interpretations become part of the research and research using case study method a result, a subjective and interpretive orientation flows throughout the inquiry CRESWELL, Phase 1: Figure 1: The collective case study involves studying multiple cases simultaneously or sequentially in an attempt to generate a still broader appreciation of a particular issue.
This positioning reflects the axiology of postpositivism where maintaining intellectual honesty, managing bias, and acknowledging limitations, coupled with meticulous data collection and accurate reporting are critical elements in the conduct of research KILLAM, ; YIN, A mixed methods, longitudinal, multi-site, socio-technical collective case study.
The data collected can be analyzed using different theories e. Implementing workforce reconfiguration was strongly influenced by the negotiation and contest among local clinicians and managers about "ownership" of work and income. The curriculum and organisational documents collected differed between sites, which possibly reflected gatekeeper influences at each site. Validity of research results are verified through the scrutiny of others and, as such, adherence to mechanisms that ensure rigor in data collection and analysis is vital.
YIN suggests careful screening in the selection of cases to ensure specific relevance to the issues of interest and the use of replication logic: Minority ethnic people experience considerably greater morbidity from asthma than the White majority population. He conducted very detailed investigations into the private lives of his patients in an attempt to both understand and help them overcome their illnesses.
Pragmatic constructivist MERRIAM maintains a constructivist approach to case study research, whereby the researcher assumes that reality is constructed intersubjectively through meanings and understandings developed socially annotated bibliography norton field guide experientially.
Case study method. It is for this reason sometimes referred research using case study method as a "naturalistic" design; this is in contrast to an "experimental" design such as a randomised controlled trial in which the investigator seeks to exert control over and manipulate the variable s of interest.
The researcher should define the uniqueness of the phenomenon, which distinguishes it from all others. Foundational Concepts While over time the contributions of researchers from varied disciplines have helped to develop and strengthen case study research, the variety of disciplinary backgrounds has also added complexity, creative writing translate around how case study research is defined, described, and applied in practice.
How are case studies conducted? Patient safety materials were incorporated into both formal and informal curricula, albeit largely implicit rather than explicit.
Case Study Research Design - How to conduct a Case Study
According to Yin, case studies can be used to explain, describe or explore events or phenomena in the everyday contexts in which they occur[ 1 ]. Our aim in writing this piece is to provide insights into when to consider employing this approach and an overview of key methodological considerations in relation to the design, planning, analysis, interpretation and reporting of case studies.
Common Characteristics of Case Study Research Despite variation in the approaches of the different exponents of case study, there are characteristics common to all of them. Variations were also found to exist in students' experiences and the research using case study method of the supervision available.
Bounding the case is essential to focusing, framing, and managing data collection and analysis. The client also reports detail of events from his or her point of view.
Case Study Research Design
Phase 2a: According to JOHANSSONRobert YIN followed this progress, and drawing on scientific approaches to research gained from his background in the social sciences, applied experimental logic to naturalistic inquiry, and blended this with qualitative methods, further bridging the methodological gap and strengthening the methodological quality of case study research.
Each methodology is unique in approach depending on the ontological and epistemological stance, however all stem from the motivation to explore, seek understanding, and establish the meaning of experiences from the perspective of those involved ibid. Stereotypes and prejudices: The method is therefore important for psychologists who adopt a holistic point of view i.
Central to these variations is the underpinning ontological and epistemological orientations of those involved in the evolution of case study research. Table 1 Example of a case study investigating the reasons for differences in recruitment rates of minority ethnic people in asthma research[ 3 ] Context: Development of case study research in education, focused on the need to determine the impact of educational programs and hardware business plan philippines relevant evidence for policy and practice decisions that supported social and educational change in the United Kingdom and the United States ibid.
We found that some of the UK researchers' perceptions of ethnic minorities may have influenced their decisions on whether to approach individuals from particular ethnic groups.
The illustrative 'grand round', 'case report' and 'case series' have a long tradition in clinical practice and research. In terms of epistemology, STAKE argues that situation shapes activity, experience, and one's interpretation of the case. Interviews are the most common form of qualitative data collection, although MERRIAM does not stipulate prioritizing a particular method for data collection or analysis, she does emphasize the importance of rigorous procedures to frame the research process.
The top-down, government-led standardised approach needed to evolve to admit more variation and greater local choice for hospitals in order to support local service delivery. Multiple-case design of respiratory services in health regions in England and Wales. Provides insight for further research. Doolin has, for example, noted that in the context of undertaking interpretative case studies, researchers can usefully draw on a critical, reflective perspective which seeks to take into account the wider social and political environment that has shaped the case[ 11 ].
The case study approach
Qualitative data were analysed thematically using a socio-technical coding matrix, combined with additional themes that emerged from the data. YIN's two-part definition focuses on the scope, process, and methodological characteristics of case study research, emphasizing the nature of inquiry as being empirical, and the importance of context to the case.
In keeping with previously published work, we annotated bibliography norton field guide the importance of theory to underpin the design, selection, conduct and interpretation of case studies[ 2 ].
Strengths of Case Studies Provides detailed rich qualitative information. Data collection and analysis: While still qualitative and inductive, it was deterministic in nature with an emphasis on cause and effect, testing theories, and an apprehension of the truth BROWN, ; YIN, Face-to-face and telephone interviews, e-mail discussions, local documents, patient diaries, news items identified from local and national websites, national workshop.