Literature review on neonatal hypothermia. Knowledge of mothers on neonatal hypothermia
Neonatal deaths are unequally distributed around the globe. In the case-control trial retrieved, there was no incidence of infection in the control arm for odds ratio calculation Table 1 [ 9 ]. The countries with high burden of neonatal deaths neonatal hypothermia is gaining importance and critical intervention during to prevent and manage hypothermia considered significant. The mortality rate of the babies with hypothermia is double compared to the babies without hypothermia and hypothermia is an important cause of morbidity too. In the direst of circumstances, hair dryer and heat lamps may be utilized but great caution must be excised because of the risk of burns. Clinical manifestations of various diseases overlap considerably in neonates.
Case Reports in Pediatrics
Transfer of radiant energy by radiation from the body surface through emission of infrared electromagnetic waves to surrounding cooler solid surfaces in close proximity but not in direct contact with the body may be the most important route of heat transfer in infants older than 28 weeks gestational age  while evaporative loss forms the major route of heat loss in the extremely low birthweight infants due to the high rate of transepidermal vaporization through the non-keratinised epidermis.
Home delivery contributes to the high incidence of neonatal hypothermia in sub-Saharan Africa. The baby was born flaccid and cyanosed, and meconium was aspirated by endotracheal tube suction. Hall, S. Neutrophils may be relevant in bacterial infections. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Conclusions A standardized approach to the collection and analysis of hypothermia data in existing newborn programs and studies is needed to inform policy and program planners on optimal thermal protection interventions.
Although it may not be uncommon to find various versions of the warm chain in the existing traditional and orthodox birth practices, frantic effort should be made to standardize what obtains in the various settlements of sub-Saharan Africa. Awareness of the burden of the disease is still low in some communities. References M. In the East African axis, report from Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya,  revealed a neonatal hypothermia prevalence of Knowledge of pathophysiological changes induced by hypothermia is useful in providing anticipatory care for at-risk babies.
Nor was there any current evidence to indicate if patients are prone to infections during or immediately dissertation la philosophie est elle utile hypothermia. Table 1: A review. For this analysis, we included individually specified hypothermia threshold definitions for each study in our results summary.
To assess the knowledge of mothers regarding neonatal hypothermia 2. View at Google Scholar C. Studies  showed that slow rewarming over several days carries higher mortality when compared with fast rewarming for few hours.
It is worrisome that some health workers in certain countries of sub-Saharan Africa  were among the healthcare providers with limited knowledge on the presentation of neonatal hypothermia, thus they might have contributed to single parent essay topic incidence and outcome of hypothermia in the region by delaying to institute appropriate treatment and preventive measures.
Azzopardi et al. Eaton, M. For instance, in Nigeria,  heating of the birth place before delivery is not practiced but in Thresholds for the definition of hypothermia vary, and data on its prevalence in neonates is scarce, particularly on a community level in Africa. As the values in some of the studies were not specified, they were calculated by SPSS v Ehrenkranz et al.
Septicemia in a Neonate following Therapeutic Hypothermia: The Literature Review of Evidence
High prevalence of hypothermia has been reported widely from warmer high mortality regions of Africa and South Asia. Eicher, C. Adelson, J. Low-tech facilities to prevent heat losses and provide warmth are available in sub-Saharan Africa and are thus recommended as well as continuous efforts at sensitizing caregivers on the thermal needs of newborns.
The mortality rate of the babies with hypothermia is double compared to the babies without hypothermia and hypothermia is an important cause of morbidity too. Maintaining a normal body temperature is a critical function for newborn survival.
The challenges of recognition, understanding of local risk factors and communication have meant a lack of informed thermal care for newborns.
Less aggressive internal warming techniques such as use of heated, humidified oxygen maintained at Changes in the blood Severe hypothermia in adults causes a significant increase in blood viscosity and packed cell volume that are reversible with normothemia. Edwards, and J. Data in formats inaccessible to the reviewer were excluded.
Rather than reviewing only intervention studies on hypothermia and assessing their quality, we reviewed any references with data on the magnitude of hypothermia prevalence as observational outcome or at study baseline.
The initial reaction of the baby to cold stimulus is heat conservation via peripheral vasoconstriction followed by heat generation,  both mediated by sympathetic activities.
Knowledge of mothers on neonatal hypothermia
The introduction of simple hypothermia prevention messages and interventions into evidence-based, cost-effective packages for maternal literature review on neonatal hypothermia newborn care has promising potential to decrease the heavy global burden of newborn deaths attributable to severe infections, prematurity, and asphyxia.
Although these studies were not primarily on neonatal hypothermia, the figures from Johannesburg, South Africa further highlighted the ubiquitous nature of neonatal hypothermia. Use of low-tech measures like warm room, Kangaroo care, hot water bottles and hot stones may be life saving in low income setting. Hypothermia, however, increases the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen but the concomitant decrease in oxygen requirement in moderate and severe hypothermia makes this event clinically unimportant.
We reviewed each pertinent paper in detail and used a systematic coding form to summarize each study's quality measures and further key findings. Early bathing increases the risk of hypothermia by nearly 4-fold. Early bathing of babies which has remained prevalent in the region  should be aggressively discouraged to bring down the statistics from High prevalence of hypothermia has been reported widely even from warmer tropical countries.
He was discharged home after 5 weeks. A recent Cochrane review  of these synthetic external insulators shows that the plastic materials significantly lower the rate of hypothermia among early preterm babies.
Pappas, A. Thus a little campaign will improve their newborn care practices.
Clinical manifestations of various diseases overlap considerably in neonates. The high low-birthweight rate in sub-Saharan Africa itself contributes to the burden of neonatal hypothermia in the region.
- Septicemia in a Neonate following Therapeutic Hypothermia: The Literature Review of Evidence
- Wade, E.
However, neonatal mortality has declined at a lower rate than child mortality, so the proportion of newborn deaths among all child deaths has single parent essay topic increasing. Elevation of hematocrit is thought to be secondary to sequestration of plasma in the capillaries.
Following the discovery of the usefulness of hypothermia in reducing cerebral cytotoxins, metabolic needs and prevention of apoptosis,  there have been increasing use of the condition in neonatal encephalopathies and thus a higher tendency to false diagnosis of brain death. Pertinent books and monographs were accessed. Renita Priya Dsouza Asst.
Neonatal hypothermia in low resource settings: a review.
Pappas, S. Apart from total body exposure required during bathing, the removal of vernix caseosa increases the rate of heat loss in babies,  thus delaying the bathing process for at least 6 hours is recommended. This further emphasises the need to ensure proper adherence to the WHO warm chain.
- Relative risk and value.
- Rao, and S.
Adult studies indicate that cold diuresis occurs with mild hypothermia as a result of increased sympathetic activity and decreased sodium and water resorption. We conducted a broad PubMed search of peer-reviewed published papers without date or language restrictions, limited to low-income or middle-income countries.
All available published literature on neonatal hypothermia was searched electronically and manually. Ragheb, P. Kiley et al's study  in cats showed that cooling of the brain to The World Health Organization recognizes newborn essay on coconut palm tree care as a critical and essential component of essential newborn care; however, hypothermia continues to remain under-documented, under-recognized and under-managed.
An exploration of its cause, effect and prevention.
Thermal control is one of the essential components of newborn care adopted by World health organization. Studies include randomized controlled trialswith one article reporting two trials conducted simultaneously by the same authors [ 11 ], nonrandomized controlled trialsretrospective cohortand case-control trials.
Soon after birth, precipitous drop in body temperature occurs,  especially in the absence of appropriate preventive measures. International journal of nursing care Vol 1 no2. A study conducted in tertiary care setting in Nigeria showed that among the 41 neonates studied, hypothermic events were commonly seen but it was not significantly associated with the mortality.
Cetin, and N. For each identified reference, full-text copies were obtained.