Calculator essay in english, essay on life purpose calculator

One of the first low-cost calculators was the Sinclair Cambridgelaunched in August More sophisticated calculators can handle exponent ial operations, roots, logarithm s, trigonometric functions, and calculator essay in english functions. The Italian Programmathe first commercial programmable desktop computer, produced by Olivetti in There followed a series of electronic calculator models from these and other manufacturers, including CanonMathatronicsOlivettiSCM Smith-Corona-MarchantSonyToshibaand Wang. The slide rule did not require any source of power, but its precision was limited, and it was necessary to climb a learning curve to become proficient with it.

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It consisted of a slat of wood, called the slide, that could be moved in and out of a reinforced pair of slats. During this era, the absence of the conditional branch was sometimes used to distinguish a programmable calculator from a computer. The abacus uses groups of beads to denote numbers.

They employed the young graduate Norbert Kitz, who had worked on the early British Pilot ACE computer project, to lead the development.

The simplest calculators can do only addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Although machines capable of performing all four arithmetic functions existed prior to the 19th century, the refinement of manufacturing and fabrication processes during the eve of the industrial revolution made large scale production of more compact and modern units possible.

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A calculation like "8 plus 5" is, using RPN, performed by pressing 8. The early calculators used hundreds of germanium transistorswhich were cheaper than silicon transistorson multiple circuit boards.

A Weird Calculator

The Olivetti Programma was introduced in late ; it was a stored program machine which could read and write magnetic cards and displayed results on its built-in printer. Pico was a spinout by five GI design engineers whose vision was to create single chip calculator ICs. In more all-transistor electronic calculators were introduced: Although these early hand-held calculators were very costly, these advances in electronics, together with developments in display technology such as the vacuum fluorescent displayLEDand LCDled within a few years to the cheap pocket calculator available to all.

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The Sinclair calculators were successful because they were far cheaper than the competition; however, their design led to slow and inaccurate computations of transcendental functions. InEdith Clarke invented the "Clarke calculator", a simple graph-based calculator for solving line equations involving hyperbolic functions.

A calculation like "8 plus 5" is, using RPN, performed by pressing 8.

The beads are positioned in several parallel rows, and can be moved up and down to denote arithmetic operations. A large, printing, desk-top unit, with an attached floor-standing logic tower, it could be programmed to perform many computer-like functions.

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It is said that a skilled abacus user can do some calculations just as fast as a person equipped with a battery-powered calculator. Like Bell Punch, Friden was a manufacturer of mechanical calculators that had decided that the future lay in electronics.

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These were the first personal computers.

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The Arithmometerinvented in as a four-operation mechanical calculator, was released to production in as an adding machine and became the first commercially successful unit; forty years later, byabout 2, arithmometers had been sold [14] plus a few hundreds more from two arithmometer clone makers Burkhardt, Germany, and Layton, UK, and Felt and Tarrant, the only other competitor in true commercial production, had sold comptometers.

One of the most primitive calculators, the abacus is still used in some regions of the Far East. For the song, see Computer World.

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Luigi Torchi invented the first direct multiplication machine in Beforea more primitive form of calculator, the slide rulewas commonly used. The slide rule did not require any source of power, but its precision was limited, and it was necessary to climb a learning curve to become proficient with it.

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This allowed electrical engineers to simplify calculations for inductance and capacitance in power transmission lines. Already there was a desire for smaller and less power-hungry machines.

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  • The early calculators used hundreds of germanium transistorswhich were cheaper than silicon transistorson multiple circuit boards.
  • The Olivetti Programma won many industrial design awards.